- 目录
### Isotopic Evolution in Evaporation Process of Soil

#### SUN Xiaoxu, CHEN Jiansheng

##### Soil Water Evaporation, Hydrogen oxygen isotopes, Evolution rule, Free water, Vacuum pumping system

Certain amount of oven-dried sand was doped with water having known isotopic composition. Using this method we prepared four groups of soil water with different water contents. Evaporation process of soil water with certain volume was simulated by the extraction in the vacuum pumping system. In the experiment, steam evaporated from each sample was condensed and collected in four time segments and the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions were determined. Based on the water measured by isotopic and the law of mass conservation, isotopic evolution rules of steam and residual water were obtained in evaporation processes. In the process of equilibrium evaporation, the enrichment of hydrogen is about eight times much more than that of oxygen in the free water. Ian D.Clark had shown the steam and residual water’s isotopic evolution rules in evaporation process of the limited volume free water. In the test, the steam isotope is depleted which is contrary to the water initial isotopic composition in soil water evaporation process. And the isotopic compositions of steam and residual water are all on the soil water evaporation line. In initial stage of evaporation process the steam losses heavy isotopes, but its isotopic composition changes toward the initial water with the increasing of the steam ratio. From comparison, it is obtained that the two isotopic evolution rules are similar in free water and soil water evaporation processes. For sand soil, vander Waals force to water molecular has little influence to soil water evaporation under the equilibrium condition.

### The Affect of the Anisotropy on the Development of

#### SUI Xianfu, WU Xiaodong

##### Horizontal well, Anisotropy ratio, Productivity ratio, Reservoir extent

Horizontal well is applied widely in developing oil reservoir but different reservoir conditions (effective thickness, anisotropy ratio) will effect greatly on the development impact when using horizontal well. In this paper, the affect of the anisotropy on the development of the horizontal well is studied, which depends on basic filtration theory, and makes effective thickness the research object. Meanwhile, a productivity ratio (Jh/Jv) is introduced in. An interpretation is given from the filtration feature of different well configure, at last, a method is given for determine the reservoir extent. Research result shows that when developing oil reservoir with horizontal well, it is neither the thicker the better nor the thinner the better for the reservoir thickness, a feasible limit is being; smaller anisotropy ratio is more fit for the application of horizontal well; the fundamental reason anisotropy ratio effects productivity ratio is that vertical filtering flow exists; however, applying vertical well, the radial fluid flow is dominate, and have nothing to do with vertical permeability.

### Macro Traffic Flow Model Based on the Hydromechani

#### WANG Fu , LI Jie

##### Macro traffic flow, Hydromechanics, Traffic press, Viscosity theory

Traffic flow theory, an interdisciplinary subject, applies mathematical and physical method to describe the traffic characteristics. It is a developing theory without comprehensive theory has been formatted in this field so far. When analyzing the similar characteristics between traffic and liquid flow, the macro traffic flow model based on the hydromechanics theory is established by adopting the hydromechanics method, and in the case of permanent traffic flow, the macro traffic flow model is solved and the definition of traffic press is given. Traffic flow takes on a flow-resistance condition on occasions when the density is high. As a result, according to the viscosity theory of liquid, the viscous macro traffic flow model is set up.

### Research of Loess-liquefaction’s Concept, Mechanis

#### WANG Yunxia, GAO Zhijun

##### Loess, Liquefaction, Liquefaction mechanism, Liquefaction criteria, Seepage, Seismic hazard

This paper discusses many aspects of loess liquefaction. It is considered that loess has liquefaction potential in the certain condition as far as mechanism of liquefaction is concerned, and loess liquefaction is a flow type of liquefaction. Elaborated the progress outlined by Chinese and foreign and give a brief analysis about the liquefaction mechanism and the influencing factors, and made a brief analysis of the seepage and liquefaction.

### A New Interpolation Meshing Method for Calculating

#### SHEN Zhenzhong, QI Shuwen, XU Liqun

##### Seepage field, Seepage flux, Finite Element method, Interpolation, Meshing

The one of main purposes of seepage analysis is calculating seepage flux. Now the finite element method (FEM) is usually used to analyze the seepage flow of water project, and by use of the mid-section method, the section seepage flux is calculated according to seepage field based upon FEM. But the mid-section is made of mid faces of many elements, which limited by the elements. It needs to consider the section composed by the elements when meshing. In the light of the characteristics of seepage field based on FEM, here a new method based upon FEM is proposed to calculate the section seepage flux. Firstly the arbitrary quadrangle section is meshing into many small grid elements automatically. Then the nodal water head of grid elements are obtained by interpolating in the seepage field, and the seepage gradient at the center of grid elements are calculated too. Finally the section seepage flux can be obtained by adding up. It is shown that the improved method has a high calculation precision. It is not limited by the element shapes, and is very convenient in use. It has more advantages than the mid-section method.

### Impact of Soil Frozen on Heat Transfer During the

#### WU Guozhong , ZHENG Zhi, LI Huidi

##### Soil Frozen, Buried pipeline, Leakage, Phase change

Considered influence of buried pipeline leakage of soil frozen in severely cold area, mathematic model was established in two coordinates that are polar coordinate and rectangular coordinate, according to phase change heat transfer of media in the buried pipeline and ice in the soil frozen. The characteristics of the dispersion of oil and water were firstly simulated by FLUENT software while the oil and water leaks from buried pipeline. It is found that influence of buried pipeline leakage of media phase change is comparatively smaller in leakage initial stage; with leakage time increasing by, temperature distribution of axis cross section place of buried pipeline tends to consistent, because phase change heat transfer makes leakage area temperature slant low; after 30 minutes, if heat transfer of water phase change, temperature of earth's surface of buried pipeline leakage is 5.4K low; and if heat transfer of oil phase change, temperature of earth's surface of buried pipeline leakage is 1.4K low.

### Analysis of Lateral Pressure on Supporting Structu

#### DAI Kui

##### Seepage force, Foundation pit, Water-earth pressure, Hindrance force

Calculating stability of supporting structures, earth pressure and water pressure are usually considered. Nonconsideration of groundwater seepage is one of the main reasons why measured values of waterearth pressure on supporting structures are generally very different from those calculated values. Mechanical effects of groundwater seepage on earth pressure were studied and the viscous drag force and seepage force were considered together. By setting up differential coefficient equations and constructing a set of entire new calculation expressions on the foundation pit were presented with consideration of groundwater seepage. It was proved that the hindrance force and the water pressure around the earth are in equilibrium with the water weight. The results calculated with the new expressionswere very close to the measured waterearth pressure values. Applying this method to calculate foundation pit, the results are approaching to practice values.

### Study on the Seepage Stability of Jingyugou Tailin

#### LI Xueliang, WANG Laigui

##### Tailing dam, Saturation line, Hydraulic gradient, Gradient ratio

In China, the tailing dams used the upstream method to construct. It was easy to form the complex structure dam, causing the saturation line up which was inside the body of dam line or overflowing from the dam area, according to the infiltration damage of dam or landslides. In accordance with the geological structure and survey data of Jingyugou tailing dam, analysis the seepage condition that the section with the present elevation was effect under flood status. To determine the saturation line, calculating the distribution of hydraulic gradient and gradient ratio. The results show that the existing drainage measure was effective and safe, and the seepage deformation cannot be happened in Jingyugou tailing dam in the status of waterflood.

### Research on Anti-seepage Properties of GCL in Envi

#### XIONG Xiaobo, GUI Guoqing, MA Shuzhi

##### Landfills, GCLs, Lines system, Impervious barrier, Experimental analysis

To build landfills is a principal means for the cities of our country to dispose garbage. The impervious barrier of cover system and lines system is the key to ensure that the landfills should not be the source of secondary pollution to the surrounding. In recent years, Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCLs) are widely used in different kinds of anti-seepage projects and the anti-seepage availabilities of GCLs are regarded as increasingly important by engineers. Anti-seepage effectiveness of GCLs involves at least two aspects, such as Hydraulic conductivity of GCLs under engineering practice conditions, and Absorption ability of bentonite in GCLs in the course of liquid permeation. In this paper, Hydraulic conductivity tests are performed to obtain seepage coefficient of GCLs, taking liquids such as distilled, deioned water and landfill leachate, and solutions with single-species cation as the hydration and permeation liquid. The results show that cation valence, cation concentration and hydration ionic radius in hydration and permeation liquids have influences on hydraulic conductivity of GCLs. Absorption ability of GCLs in the course of liquid permeation is studied, and its influencing factors are also discussed, including hydration liquid and permeation time. The results Show that GCLs has large absorption ability on the permeation liquids. But the ability is decreasing with increase of permeation volume. And the types of hydration liquids exercise great influence on the variation of GCLs absorption. Analyses are made to combine the conclusion obtained in this study with practical engineering projects, and proposals of building method of GCLs are advanced, and make suggestion on the future development of this technology.

### Numerical Simulation on Flow Pattern of Gas-Partic

#### LI Haixia, GAO Bingguang

##### Ceramic Filter Vessel, Gas/solid flow, Numerical simulation

The user-defined function has been added to the Eulerian two-fluid model provided by FLUENT code to evaluate the gas-particle two-phase flow field in ceramic filter vessel considering the wide range of particle concentration. The variations of the filter cake density during filtration were analyzed. The gas and solid flow behavior in the filter vessel has been analyzed. The variation of the filter cake density along filter during filtration process was studied. The simulation results agree well with experimental data. So far the numerical results show a good approach to predict the particle distribution in filter vessel and the particle deposition on filter element.

### Water Migratory Model and Numerical Simulation Con

#### ZHOU Junping, XIAN Xuefu, LI Xiaohong

##### Upstream weighting scheme, Dual porosity media, Coupled hydro-mechanical process, Contaminant transport, Numerical model

In numerical modeling of fracture–matrix flow, the fully upstream weighting scheme is routinely used to estimate flow mobility at the fracture–matrix interface. As a result, the fracture relative permeability is commonly selected in estimating such mobility when local flow is towards the matrix. However, this scheme has a physically flaw. To overcome the limitation of the scheme, based on the principle that the capillary pressure is continuous at the fracture–matrix interface, and the assumption that there is instantaneous local equilibrium in pressure on the matrix surface between fracture and matrix systems, a modified upstream weighting scheme select appropriate mobility for fracture–matrix interaction based on the flux sign at the surface of matrix is proposed，which is physically correct. the proposed approach was implemented into dual porosity media model to calculating flow between fractures and the rock matrix, and considering influence of coupled hydro-mechanical processes simultaneously, developed a model for describing the transportation and transformation of water in fractured porous media, and the numerical scheme is given. The approach could be used for the simulation of water transport in dual porosity media, and predicts the temporal and spatial distribution features of saturation. In the end, there is a numerical example used to validate the rationality of this model.

### Non-linear Flow Theory of Low Permeability Reservo

#### SHEN Rui, XIONG Wei

##### Low permeability reservoir, Nonlinear porous flow, Numerical simulation

In order to describe the percolation law in low permeability reservoir, the correction factor of percolation ability which varies with the pressure gradient is proposed in this paper on the basis of experiment. The nonlinear flow model is developed for the low permeability reservoir and is applied to the black oil model stimulator. The result of the preliminary simulation conforms to the field data well. From the calculation result, it is shown that the correction factor of percolation ability is larger around the production and injection wells where the pressure gradient is larger, and it is smaller in the area far from the connecting line of the production and injection wells.

### Numerical Simulation on Rheological Model of Mecha

#### FAN Zhihua, FAN Houbin, LIU Jianjun

##### Landfill, Anti-seepage, Porous medium, Fluid-solid coupling, Deformation laws

The track is the most harm to asphalt road surface; it also has been the focus and difficulty on road engineering and its research. Asphalt mixture is regarded as visco-Elastic-Plastic constitutive in this paper. Based on the asphalt road surface formation mechanics, basic principle of the folding model on constitutive of Asphalt mixture is proposed. And the computer soft V2D_229C has been developed. The permanent deformation of road surface with cyclic loading was performed.

### Numerical Analysis of the Influence of Cement Ring

#### GAO Jutong

##### Water injection, Fluid-solid coupling, Casing failure, Cement ring

Cement ring is the binders between oil well casing and formation; it plays a very important role to keep the stability of borehole wall and casing. The lack of cement ring is bound to affect the distribution of stress around borehole wall, and then affect the stress of casing and the stability of borehole wall. Based on the seepage-stress coupling theory, this paper established the three dimensional flow-solid coupling model of the casing-cement ring-reservoir, analyzed the influence of cement ring quality defects of the injection wells on the casing in the process of water injection. In the process of water injection, uneven distribution of cement ring can cause the separation of contact surface or the subsequent damage from the other part by the effect of stress concentration caused by cement ring damage, thus cause the chandelling flow to interlays.

### The Simulation to Water Transport in Unsaturated S

#### LIU Peng, HUANG Ying

##### Water, Unsaturated soil, Transport model, Movement law

Both water supply and substantive rainfalls course the water influent to unsaturated soil and change the water content. Base on conventional transport of unsaturated soil water, established the transport equation, and gave out model solving process. This model could forecast the movement law at unsaturated soil environment. Use the software Femlab simulated the change law about transport of unsaturated soil water in 10days. The result shows that the horizon and vertical water content is incessant increase with the time; Water content came along the distance water source increase whereas decrease; the farther to the distance water source, the smaller to the water content; water movement degree at penetrability well soil is greater than the penetrability poor soil, so transport of unsaturated soil water mostly focus on the penetrability well soil. Both toward handling problem about soil and water loss, pollution to surface water and groundwater, flood drought with water resources have theory supervise sense and operation significance.

### Combined Gravity-Stress-Temperature Driven One-Dim

#### CHAI Junrui, XU Zengguang, WU Yanqing

##### One-dimensional seepage model, Hydraulic head gradient, Temperature gradient, Stress, Theoretical solution

Based on the ordinary seepage model only considering the action of gravity or hydraulic head, the new seepage model is proposed in which the combined action of hydraulic head gradient, temperature gradient and stress is taken into account. The new combined gravity-stress-temperature driven one-dimensional seepage model is theoretically solved and analyzed under several cases and boundary conditions to reflect the quantitative effect of gravity, stress and temperature.

### Analysis on Coupled Fields Inside Passage by Finit

#### WANG Hao, LIU Lily

##### ANSYS, Solenoid, Electromagnetic force, Electrolyte solution

By analyzing the dynamic flow driven by the electrolyte solution in the magnetic field and electric field that generated respectively by solenoid and parallel plate electrodes, this article did the electromagnetic field calculation and flow field calculation via ANSYS software, and the results from the electromagnetic coupling analysis were obtained thereby.

### Influence of the Difference Slope Angles on the Cr

#### ZHANG Lilin, WANG Laigui, ZHOU Yongfa

##### Gravity dam heel is the area of stress singularity and it is critical in the stress analysis of the dams. In order to study the harm of the cracks on the dam heel, the finite element method is applied

Dam heel, Slope angle, Numerical simulation, Tension fracture